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Perugia, Umbria

Perugia is the capital city of Umbria, it is relatively unknown compared to neighbouring Assisi and the famous towns of Tuscany. Its absence from the tourist radar and large centro storico (historic centre) mean that it is not crowded with visitors, making a visit to Perugia all the more enjoyable.

The view from Perugia's walls

The view from Perugia’s walls

There are lots of interesting things to see in Perugia, the Underground City, the National Gallery of Umbria, Perugino’s frescoes in the Collegio del Cambio, the Piazza IV Novembre, the Etruscan Gate, the Etruscan Well, Raphael’s fresco in San Severino and the Oratorio di San Bernardino di Siena, a church with with a beautifully carved facade. You can buy a single ticket that gives you access to the National Gallery, the Collegio del Cambio, the Etruscan Well and San Severio, the other places can be seen without an entrance ticket. You see all this and more by following the Perugia City Walk in my book, Circular Walks On The Tuscany Umbria Border, available as an e-book from Amazon.

The Underground City

This is all that remains of the papal fortress, the Rocca Paolina. When Pope Paul III took over Perugia he built his fortress directly over the houses of the previous rulers, the Baglioni family. The roofs were removed and huge brick vaults were built over the top, creating storerooms and, I assume, dungeons to put the Pope’s enemies in. The architect also moved an Etruscan gate, the Porta Marzia, and incorporated it into the lower wall of the fortress.

The Underground City in Perugia, Umbria

The Underground City in Perugia, Umbria

The National Gallery Of Umbria

Located on the third floor of Palazzo dei Priori, the National Gallery of Umbria houses a fine collection of art with works by Duccio di Buoninsegna, Gentile da Fabriano, Fra’ Angelico, Piero della Francesca, Pinturicchio and Perugino. In addition, one of the rooms is frescoed with a medieval city scape of Perugia that shows fortified towers similar to those in San Gimignano in Tuscany.

The Annunciation on the Perugia altarpiece by Piero della Francesca

The Annunciation on the Perugia altarpiece

Collegio del Cambio

Also located in the Palazzo dei Priori (separate ground floor entrance), the room of the Collegio del Cambio (money changers guild) has Perugino’s finest fresco in Perugia. Covering four walls and the ceiling, the fresco juxtaposes figures from classical history with those from the bible set against unmistakably Umbrian landscapes.

Perugino's frescoes in the Collegio del Cambio, Perugia

Frescoes in the Collegio del Cambio, Perugia

Piazza IV Novembre

The unfinished side of the Duomo and the end of the Palazzo di Priori face each other across Perugia’s main square, Piazza IV Novembre, the centre is dominated by the Fontana Maggiore, a medieval fountain that was supplied by a specially built aqueduct. The panels of the fountain are carved with scenes from Aesop’s Fables, zodiacal signs and labours of the month as well as scenes from the bible.

The Palazzo deo Priori seen from Piazza IV novembre, Perugia

The Palazzo deo Priori seen from Piazza IV novembre, Perugia

Etruscan Well

A short walk past the front of the Duomo takes you to the Pozzo Etrusco, or Etruscan Well. It is unknown how deep this massive structure is as it has become partially filled with rubble. You can stand on a bridge across the well (six people at a time) and admire the Etruscan’s engineering techniques.

The Etruscan Well was the principle source of water for the city in ancient times

The Etruscan Well in Perugia, Umbria

Raphael’s Fresco In San Severo

Another short walk takes you to the church of San Severo where you will find a fresco by the young Raphael. In fact, he only completed the top half of the painting before being called away to work in Siena, Florence and Rome, never to return. After his death, his elderly teacher, Perugino, completed the fresco but if you compare it to the frescoes in the Collegio del Cambio he was clearly past his prime.

The Etruscan Gate

The north entrance to the centro storico is through a massive Etruscan gate, the giant blocks in the lower wall are typical of Etruscan walls. If you look at the top of the gate you will see that the adopted son of Julius Caesar, Octavian, or Augustus Caesar had “Avgvstvs Pervsia” carved into the arch when he captured the city after a siege.

Etruscan Gate in Perugia, Umbria, italy

The northern entrance to Perugia, the Etruscan Gate.

Medieval Aqueduct

From here, it’s a few hundred metres to the medieval aqueduct, now a pedestrian walkway that takes you back up to the city centre. The aqueduct brought water from the nearby hills to the north of Perugia and supplied the Fontana Maggiore with water. The water must have been piped in a giant siphon because it would have flowed uphill at the end of the aqueduct.

The medieval aqueduct in Perugia, now a pedestrian walkway

The medieval aqueduct in Perugia, now a pedestrian walkway

Oratorio di San Bernardino

Carved by a Florentine sculptor, Agostino di Duccio, the facade of this church depicts scenes from the life of San Bernardino di Siena. Cleverly, the carvings change from relief (flat) at eye level, to a much more pronounced three dimensional shape as your eye travels upwards. This compensates for the effect of perspective and makes it easier to pick out details higher up.

Facade of the Oratorio di San Bernardino in Perugia

Facade of the Oratorio di San Bernardino in Perugia

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A Rainy Day Out In Siena, Tuscany

Yesterday we went with my niece Jessica for a day trip to the beautiful city of Siena in Tuscany. It was raining heavily when we arrived but we bought umbrellas and didn’t let the weather put us off our sightseeing trip. I parked at the San Francesco car park, from where a series of escalators bring you up right next to the church of San Francesco. From here it is a quick walk right into the centre of town.

The Top Of The Facade Of Siena's Duomo

Our time was limited and I had a few things that I planned to pack in to our day out. For a first time visitor I thought that a visit to the Duomo and the Museo Civico were the most important things to see, along with a stroll around the Campo, Siena’s scallop-shell shaped central piazza. A joint ticket costing €12 gives you access to the Duomo, the attached Piccolomini library with Pinturicchio’s frescoes depicting the life of Pope Pius II, the Baptistry, the crypt below the Duomo and the Museo dell’Opera del Duomo (which has most of the panels from Duccio’s altarpiece originally in the Duomo and great views from the top of the unfinished Cathedral extension).

Central Panel Of Duccio's Altarpiece In Siena

The Central Panel Of Duccio’s Altarpiece In Siena

We started with the museum and, having admired the panels of Duccio’s medieval masterpiece, made our way up the slightly claustrophobic spiral staircase to the top of the wall that would have been the front of the enormous Duomo extension (had the Black Death not killed the majority of the population of Siena in 1348). This is a great vantage point, and, although not as high as the Torre del Mangia that towers above the Campo, it offers a bird’s eye view of the city without having to queue.

Siena's Duomo viewed from the unfinished medieval extension

Siena’s Duomo viewed from the unfinished medieval extension

From here we headed into into the Duomo with its impressive green and white striped marble columns and spacious interior. You can look down as well as up here, the floors have intricate designs in inlaid marble.

The interior of Siens's Duomo

The interior of Sienas’s Duomo

A doorway on the left of the Duomo leads into the the Piccolomini Library, frescoed by Umbrian painter Pinturicchio who was possibly helped by Raphael. The frescoes show scenes from the life of a great Renaissance pope (and local boy made good), Pius II.

The ceiling of the Piccolomini Library

The ceiling of the Piccolomini Library

Once we had finished in the Duomo, we used our tickets to visit the Baptistry and the Crypt, then we walked back to the Campo and bought tickets for the Museo Civico, situated in the Palazzo Publicco (€8 full price, €5.50 reduction). There were four paintings that I wanted to show my niece here, Simone Martini’s Maestà, his equine portrait of Guidoriccio da Fogliano and Ambrogio Lorenzetti’s frescoes of Good and Bad Government.

The effects of good government depicted by Ambrogio Lorenzetti in Siena

The effects of good government depicted by Ambrogio Lorenzetti

Although the Maestà is a common theme in medieval art, Simone Martini’s version had a new feature; he painted a canopy over the throne to give the painting more depth. Whether the portrait of Guidoriccio da Fogliano is actually by Simone Martini is the subject of fierce debate in the art world, however, whoever it is by, it is a beautiful painting.

Simone's Maestà in the Museo Civico, Siena

Simone’s Maestà in the Museo Civico, Siena

In the next room Ambrogio Lorenzetti painted his Allegory of Good and Bad Government to remind Siena’s ruling council of the effects that their decisions could have. A few years later the city was thrown into chaos as the Black Death swept through Siena’s narrow streets, killing Ambrogio Lorenzetti and his brother Pietro along with over half the population. The scenes from the Bad Government fresco must have seemed all too real to the survivors.

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