Archive for the Giotto Category

Santa Croce, Florence

On our visit to Florence last week we visited the huge Franciscan church of Santa Croce, a short walk to the east from the centre. Several famous Tuscans are buried here, including Michelangelo, Galileo and Dante.

The facade of Santa Croce in Florence

The facade of Santa Croce in Florence

Giotto and his followers decorated much of the church with frescoes that still survive today. The entrance fee is €6, we were on our way past the church so we paid up and went in.

I’m sure Piero della Francesca had a good look at the frescoes by Agnolo Gaddi behind the altar of Santa Croce when he lived in Florence. The frescoes depict the Story Of The True Cross, a theme also painted by Piero della Francesca in his famous  frescoes in Arezzo. If you’ve seen both fresco cycles it’s interesting to see how quickly painting advanced in a hundred years.

The interior of Santa Croce is quite impressive, but, if you are seeing Florence on a budget I think you can get better value for your money elsewhere, we were walking back to our car and it made for a pleasant 30 minute stop before heading home. However, even if you have no intention of going inside I would still recommend a wander past Santa Croce to admire the facade and the piazza. Perhaps everyone visiting the city is now expected to buy a Florence Card for €72, this gives priority access to most museums for 72 hours after purchase but is not very practical for a day trip.

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The Basilica Of Saint Francis Of Assisi

St Francis of Assisi

Assisi is probably the best known town in Umbria thanks to the town’s (and the world’s) most famous saint, St. Francis of Assisi (1181-1226). St. Francis preached a type of Christianity that spoke of humility and compassion for the poor, not a message that wealthy members of the church necessarily wanted to promote. Upsetting orthodox church teachings was a dangerous pastime that could easily result in being burnt at the stake. Luckily for Francis, the power of the huge religious revival that he started was harnessed by the church and he was granted a religious order. The new modern day pope, Francis I, by choosing the name of the saint, has sent a clear signal that he intends to reconnect with the ordinary members of the church.

The Basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi

The Basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi

The Basilica of Saint Francis

In 1228 work started on a huge church in Assisi to commemorate the life of Saint Francis, the Basilica of Saint Francis is in reality two churches, an Upper and Lower Basilica.

The huge size of the church showed how important St. Francis had become, but in all likelihood it was not something he would have approved of. However, one of St Francis’ wishes was complied with; the church built to house his body was built at the end of town where previously criminals had been hanged. The Basilica uses elements of the Gothic and Romanesque architectural styles, for example, the Upper Basilica mixes a Romanesque rose window with Gothic (pointed) arches in the interior.

The Upper Basilica

Badly damaged in September 1997 by an earthquake, the Upper Basilica was restored and re-opened within two years.

The Interior Of The Upper Basilica In Assisi

The Nave Of The Upper Basilica In Assisi

Giotto’s Life Of Saint Francis

One of the world’s most famous fresco cycles (attributed to Giotto but disputed by many) is painted on the walls of the nave, it depicts scenes from the life of Saint Francis. Painted around 1300, these paintings are important to art historians because they show a break from traditional style of medieval painting, the faces have emotion, the figures are solid and show movement and the scenes have some perspective. The Renaissance didn’t suddenly appear in the 1420’s, art was developing long before.

Sermon to the birds, Legend of St Francis

Sermon to the birds, Legend of St Francis

Frescoed on the transept of the Upper Basilica are biblical scenes by Giotto’s teacher, Cimabue. The white pigment, based on lead oxide has turned black giving the frescoes a strange negative image effect.

Cimabue's Crucifixion In The Upper Basilica, Assisi

Cimabue’s Crucifixion In The Upper Basilica, Assisi

The Lower Basilica

The Lower Basilica is darker and lower ceilinged than the Upper Basilica, it has works of art by Cimabue, Giotto, Pietro Lorenzetti and Simone Martini.

The Altar & Transept Of The Lower Basiilca of St Francis of Assisi

The Altar & Left Hand Transept Of The Lower Basiilca, Assisi

Cimabue

On the right hand wall of the transept next to the nave is a painting of St. Francis by Cimabue that is often cited as the portrait most likely to resemble the Saint. This is because it was painted five decades after his death and used the description of someone who knew him. Saint Francis is standing on the right

Portrait Of St Francis By Cimabue

Portrait Of St Francis By Cimabue, Assisi

Giotto

Giotto or his followers are responsible for the chapels of Mary Madelene and Saint Nicholas, these can be found off the nave. In the transept, look for the story of the young Jesus, They show the characters within realistic looking landscapes rather than having them placed in the foreground with the scenery behind

Simone Martini, Chapel of St. Martin

The decoration of the Chapel of Saint Martin was designed and implemented by the Sienese artist Simone Martini, his work includes the floor, the stained glass windows and the frescoes. The paintings are quite hard to view thanks to the bright down lights but are well worth persevering with. If you go in through the entrance to the Lower Basilica the chapel is on the left hand side of the nave.

Medieval musicians frescoed on the walls of the San martino  chapel, Assisi

Musicians by Simone Martini, Assisi, Italy

Pietro Lorenzetti

Pietro Lorenzetti, a Sienese artist and contemporary of Giotto, was a master of composition, look at the Deposition and you can see how the figures and the body of Christ form a triangle.

Medieval musicians frescoed on the walls of the San martino  chapel, Assisi

Medieval musicians frescoed on the walls of the San martino chapel, Assisi

As with Giotto’s painting, Pietro Lorenzetti showed emotion on the faces of his subjects and he was beginning to master perspective seventy years before the start of the Renaissance. Pietro’s brother, Ambrogio, painted the Allegories Of Good And Bad Government in Siena.

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